The benefits of using immobilized catalysts in industrial processes include potential for decreased metal contamination in products and waste streams and the ability to easily recover and reuse the catalysts, both of which can decrease the cost of a synthesis. Although immobilized catalysts can be more expensive than their homogeneous counterparts the cost savings is realized through their recycling and reuse. Although immobilized systems have not achieved widespread implementation on scale, industry is interested in realizing the economic and environmental benefits of the technology. Two of the main factors driving its use will be the development of new, improved immobilized catalysts and industry's increasing focus of green chemistry and sustainability. First, development of new catalysts is ongoing, in academia, by commercial suppliers, and through collaborations, with the work being carried out with an eye toward implementation once the technology is mature enough for use in future or existing industrial processes.
Secondly, as the industry moves toward more green chemistry and sustainability analyses and practices, it is possible that metrics such as mass efficiency may play a larger role in evaluating the economic viability of processes, and as a result, the recycling, reuse, and benefits in terms of waste disposal could play a larger role earlier in the development process, which could result in heterogeneous catalysts becoming cost competitive with their homogeneous counterparts.Developing reactor systems that are able to work AT SCALE with both types of catalysts will enable wider implentaion . Our unique DART-DM designs are scalable and capable of working with suspended slurries and immobilized catalysts.